GHOSTS IN THE ROYAL SERVICEIn the beginning 1960-ies to the leadership of the British Navy faced the problem of replacement fighter aircraft “sea vixen” (Sea Vixen) more modern machine. First, the sailors wanted to buy from your company “Hawker Siddle” (Hawker Siddeley) supersonic aircraft vertical takeoff R. 1154. But because of its high cost and the inevitability of problems in development, they turned their attention to the American Phantom, which was relatively cheaper and did not require a large investment of time to create.

Discussion the configuration of the Phantom for the UK took place in the summer of 1964. In the same year, the Minister of defense Peter Thorneycroft (Peter Thorneycroft) announced the purchase of “phantom”, modified to be based on English carriers, in the variant of the fighter-bomber.

The basis of the new modification engineers took a carrier-based fighter-interceptor F-4B. Hence the original American designation British “Phantom” – F-4B (RN), RN from the Royal Navy. However, the negotiations dragged on, and after the modification of the F-4J designers working on the aircraft and the designation was changed to F-4K. In the UK fighter-bomber received the designation Phantom FG.1, FG is the abbreviation for Fighter Ground Attack.
The first order consisted of 143 aircraft, but in 1966, after coming to power in the UK labour party, who sought to reduce military spending, it is first reduced to 137, then to 110, and finally came to four experienced and the 48 serial. Of them wanted to form two squadrons for the armament of the aircraft carriers “Ark Royal” (Royal Ark) R09 and “Eagle” (Eagle) R05.
F-4K had a large number of differences from the base model. They are all dictated by the peculiarities of the British aircraft carriers, their short take-off and landing deck were demanding better landing characteristics, strengthen the chassis and brake hook. In addition, the restricted size of the cutouts in the deck to the elevators samolyotov forced the developers to think about shortening the fuselage a meter, otherwise the plane just could not be brought from the hangar to the flight deck.
The rise of the fighter the Phantom F-4K from the deck of the aircraft carrier
Rise of the fighter the Phantom F-4K from the deck of the aircraft carrier “Ark Royal”
Structurally shorten “Phantom” on a meter was not possible, and the only solution to this problem was to fold any part of the aircraft. Simpler and easier the surgery was to hold with nose cone, moreover, the experience in this direction, the British already had. Their carrier-based bomber “Bakalar” (.) “shortened” in this way, however, the folding bow on the F-4 prevented the protruding antenna of the radar. Came to the aid of the British company “Ferranti” (Ferranti). Its engineers pererabotki own version of the radar AN/APQ-59 AN/APQ-60 with a short antenna and a smaller diameter mirrors. Once on the plane she allowed the nose cone to recline 180° to the right, the length of the fuselage was reduced to the desired meter.
To improve takeoff and landing characteristics are decided by the installation on the F-4K turbofan engines RB.168-15R “Spey” 201 company “rolls-Royce” (Rolls-Royce), which were more powerful and more economical than the us J79. Their maximum thrust was more by 12%, and afterburner – 20%. The design characteristics of the Phantom have improved massively. Increased service ceiling, range and tagonoura-why should it be. The difference was so significant that the firm “McDonnell” (McDonnell) has offered its military to put this TRD in all the American “phantoms” and even invented for them a new designation – F4H-2 for the Navy and F-110B – for the air force. But McNamara refused, believing that the increase in the cost of production and operation of exhaust of the aircraft will worsen the situation of program multipurpose tactical fighter TFX (F-111).
The new engines had 20% more air flow, so designers had to increase the area of the air intakes and add a couple of extra – working on the ground. They were at the bottom of the fuselage in flight and closed doors. The afterburning chamber turbojet “Spey” is heated stronger than the J79, and in the fuselage over the engines, made two additional air intake for cooling. Through them the air is fed into the engine compartment, took them around the afterburner, and ejected to the outside through the gap around the nozzle.
However, one high agowarren activities to reduce the takeoff distance was not enough: too significant was the difference between the onboard catapult ships -the length of the track, the British catapult BS.5 was shorter than the American Mk.13 by as much as 45 meters. The final speed of the aircraft, risovannogo on BS.5, worked less, and wing lift would not be enough for a safe takeoff. In addition, the American “phantoms” could launch with his catapult in complete calm, using only the air flow that was created above the deck at full speed of the ship, but the maximum speed of British aircraft carriers were smaller and therefore less was the speed of the air flow. This entire complex of negative factors required a drastic increase in lifting force.
The designers of “McDonnell” offered the customer to make a completely new version of the aircraft, with a somewhat reduced sweep and larger wing – R-4(НL), but was refused.
Then, in order not to redo the entire car, the designers increased the Parking angle of attack of the wing, extending the nose landing gear to 1016 mm., Special hydraulic mechanism to “push” the rack after the exit of the plane to the starting position and shortened it after take-off, before folding in the niche. Testing of the mechanism took place on a modified R-4C, which made a series of experimental flights of an aircraft carrier Fоггеstal. The power of the catapult were reduced to simulate the energy capacity of the catapult BS.5. The results of the tests were positive. “Phantom” could take off from the deck when the speed of the oncoming airflow of at least 20 km/h, which corresponded to the speed of the ship at about 11 knots.
The first pre-production YF-4K, with a British registration number ХТ595, took off from the strip factory in St. Louis June 27, 1966, exactly 30 days after the flight of the first F-4J, the Second sample (ХТ596) took to the air on 1 August. Both aircraft had American equipment and British engines, they were intended for tests of the power plant. After overflights YF-4K was sent to the U.S. Edwards air force base, which had all the necessary equipment.
The next two, already pre-production, the phantom YF-4K (ХТ597/ХТ598) are distinguished by the fact that they raised the equipment of the British production, because under the terms of the contract, the UK was producing half of the detail design of the fighter and all the electronic equipment in their factories. The composition and characteristics of the equipment have changed slightly, in some cases, changing only the designation.
During flight tests showed an unexpected lag in the control system of the engine thrust. When the pilot moved the control stick the engine thrust was varied with a noticeable lag that not only create discomfort, but could cost lives in a dogfight or landing.
According to experts “rolls-Royce”, the reason for this unacceptable phenomenon lay in the cable wiring of control from ORE to accessories TRD, which is not possessed of sufficient rigidity.
Completely different was the opinion of engineers “McDonnell”, because doubt was placed in their competence. They stated that the point is the fundamental difference in regulatory systems. From us regulators fuel in the main and afterburning contours were hydraulic as a working fluid used by the fuel, and the British “Spey” were mechanical regulators. According to the Americans, they were guilty. The British proposed to remake the regulation system and change the wiring to “McDonnell” refused.
In a meaningless picks between the engineers lost time, but none of their positions are not passed. Then the British were connected to the solution a third party company Controlex, which developed a rigid system of rods and rockers, to guarantee flawless operation of the engine. At one of the joint meetings of the American representative, continued to defend the point of view of “McDonnell”, said on this occasion, what they expect from the “rolls-Royce” decisive steps, and their Controlex – dead.
But, in the end, common sense prevailed and the proposal Controlex took, because the alteration of the system of regulation of the turbojet engine – the task is daunting and expensive. Happy mechanics was applied to the fuselage of the YF-4K an impromptu slogan of pieces of Scotch tape: “Controlex -alive!” and started to change the cables for traction. The plane was in a hangar at Edwards AFB, and the triumphant inscription was evident all incoming as open sarcasm over the arrogance and stubbornness of the Americans.
Another nuisance was the large bottom resistance is associated with another form of nozzle of the British engine. Despite all the efforts made to completely eliminate
this is a harmful phenomenon and failed, so the F-4K was inferior to the F-4J in maximum speed flight.
After flight tests began mass production. The construction of the first production Phantom FG.1 (ХТ597) completed in October 1966. The pace of aircraft production was very low. Production workers suffered from delays in the supply of onboard systems and parts of the airframe from UK, and the cost of their transportation seriously increases the cost of the fighter. Serial FG.1 standing engines “Spey” (Spey) 203, which had a short-term increase in thrust by injecting additional fuel in an already running afterburner. This greatly reduced the resource TRD, and using such a method was only possible in cases of emergency, for example, when landing with one working engine.
In April 1968 phantoms FG.1 began to arrive in the training squadron 700R. When the first group of pilots were ready to fly from the deck, she relocated aboard the USS Saratoga (Saratoga) CVA-60 and under the guidance of American instructors continued development of new technology.
Operation FG.1 with the deck revealed another serious drawback of the machine. Its just a huge Parking angle is about eight degrees has led to the fact that the afterburning jet engine fell straight to the deck and “beat” in the base gazoochistnogo shield. Just after a few UPS FG.1 shield on the Saratoga did not survive and went bankrupt, in addition, burned and a special deck coating. The British aircraft carrier “Eagle” (Eagle), where in the summer of 1968 FG.1 is undergoing flight tests, the situation with the overheating of the decks were even worse. Gatubela shields on the “Needle” did not have water cooling and raise them just didn’t dare, and heated to red glow of the deck had to be cooled with water from a fire hose. Urgently it was necessary to modify gatubela shields on “Ark Royal”, who at that time was in repair. Its deck was covered with additional steel plates, upgraded gazoobilnyh shield, and the sides of the shield put additional reflectors, protecting personnel, providing the launch aircraft.
Similar work on the “Needle” would be held in the end of the year, but money is the government has not allocated. In the plans of the labour party did not develop a carrier-based Navy. In a new White paper of the Ministry of defence said that the tasks of carrier-based aircraft will be assigned to a conventional aircraft-based. With this purpose it was planned to buy in the USA 50 tactical fighter F-111 and place them on bases in Singapore, Australia and the Maldives. In the range of about 2000 km, the F-111 could cover the main areas where Britain had its own interests. The first steps towards the implementation of the new strategy waivers from the construction of a new heavy aircraft carrier and the modernization of the aircraft carrier “Eagle”. Work on the “Ark Royal”, which cost the Treasury GBP 32 million, saw fit to finish all the same.
These decisions affected the fate of “phantom”. Instead of the 48 aircraft of the Navy received only 29, which became part of 892 squadron, the remaining FG.1 handed over to the air force. Forming a 43rd air defense squadron that was based at the airfield Lakers (Leuchars) in Scotland.
Basic flight characteristics of the aircraft F-4K Phantom
1 – extension rod for flight testing; 2 – chair of the “Martin-Baker” (Martin-Baker) Mk.H5; 3 – antenna (only prototype); 4 – television sighting system; 5 – drain hole of the boundary layer of air; 6 – antenna; 7 – brake landing hook; 8 – inner wing pylon; 9 – outer wing pylon; 10 – periscope rear view; 11 – a niche cleaning retractable ladder; 12 – canopy canopy; 13 – opening of the lantern; 14 – motor; 15 – radar Radome; 16 – bow front in the starting position; 17 – wheel nose landing gear; 18 – fold niche wheels; 19 – wheel main landing gear; 20 – fold main landing gear; 21 – rotary stabilizer; 22 – brake; 23 – unit rotation of zakonov-Ki wing; 24 – wedge intake; 25 – lights of the cab in the open position; 26 – chair, “Martin-Baker” (Martin-Baker) Mk.7A; 27 – radar Radome in the open position; 28 – radar; 29 – the front landing gear in the released position; 30 stepladder; 31 – fold niche cleaning front

In 1969, the British newspaper the Daily Mail chose to mark the 50th anniversary of transatlantic flight bomber “Vimi” the company “Vickers” (Vickers Vimy). To this end, it initiated an air race British military aircraft across the Atlantic and set a prize of £ 10,000. The participants had to overcome the distance between the Empire state building in new York and the post office tower in London.
More specifically, the pilots had to get a conditional letter from new York to London. On top of the Empire state building, the race took the envelope, went down the Elevator, sat on a motorcycle and drove to the helicopter, which brought the party to the nearest airport, from there, already on his military plane, he raced across the ocean to London, where again he sat in the helicopter, and then ran to the post office. Thus the complexity of the task was not so much the maximum possible speed of the fighter route, but in the organization of all competitions and coherence of all participants on the ground and in the air.
The BBC put the team on airplanes “Harrier” (Harrier) GR.1 of 1 squadron. The Navy decided to perform a “phantom” FG.1 of 892 squadron. The support team of the competition included helicopters, the Wessex (Wessex) of 72 squadron. Aerial refueling was carried out by the tanker “Victor” (the Victor) from the 55th and 57th squadrons.
Victory in this thrilling adventure, which was broadcast live TV channels in the UK and USA, was won by the sailors. The crew of “Phantom”, the pilot Brian Davis (Brian Davies) and operator Peter Goddard (Peter Goddard), missed 5 hours and 11 minutes. Their fighter crossed the ocean in 4 hours 46 minutes and 57 seconds, setting a new speed record on this route – 1164,84 km/h Team from the air force formally lost with the result of 6 hours 11 minutes and 57 seconds. But “harriera” flew in the opposite direction, from London to new York and, thus, morally also considered themselves the victors.
The fighter
Fighter the Phantom F-4K of 892 squadron of carrier-based aircraft, painted in honor of the 25th anniversary of the accession to the throne of Queen Elizabeth
Phantom FGR.2 of 92 squadron RAF in camouflage color
Phantom FGR.2 of 92 squadron RAF in camouflage color
In June 1970 the first and, as I thought, the last carrier-based squadron 892, armed with FG.1 were relocated aboard “Ark Royal”. On the tail of the aircraft sported the letter P (omega) is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. The main combat task for “phantoms” was the fight against air targets. The assault capability of the FG.1 was very limited. No guided weapons class “air-land” they are not held and could only use conventional bombs, SNEB unguided rockets caliber 68 mm.
In 1975, at the fin tip FG.1 set box-container system warning receiver of the enemy radar AR1 18228 and upgraded sighting system.
During the operation on Board the FG.1 there is another interesting and unusual instrument – the so-called “positioning device handle” (Stick Positioning Device – SPD). Invented by pilots, he did rise from the deck as safe as possible. The fact that before takeoff the pilot had to reject the stabilizer at a certain angle, which depended on the weight of the fighter and the speed of the oncoming wind. The lack of deviation could lead to strong drawdown of the aircraft, and excessive – to go critical angle of attack and loss of control. For external control of this important angle on the fuselage struck a special markup, but the pilot to set the desired angle was difficult, he in the cockpit, just missing the appropriate indicator. Here is something to help and came SPD. It was a rope, attached at one end to the lower part of the dashboard. Its other end is attached to the control handle. The pilots had only to choose the right length of the rope that will most accurately reflect the desired angle of deflection of the stabilizer, and before takeoff to keep it tight.
In 1978 the jets FG.1 blamed on the shore – the aircraft carrier “Ark Royal” was taken out of operation. Last FG.1 took off from its deck November 27, 1978. 829 squadron was disbanded. Deck aviation pilots boarded the fighters “Harrier”. Marine “phantoms” distilled in Scotland, where they formed the 111 th squadron of the air defense, which used FG.1 to 1990. For all time of operation of the Royal Navy lost seven FG.1 in accidents and disasters. Eight aircraft crashed during their operation in the air force.
F-4M, or Phantom FGR.2 was a modification of the F-4J for the Royal air force (RAF). The letter “R” (from the English. reconnaissance) designation indicates the ability to perform reconnaissance aircraft missions. He was bought to replace obsolete fighter “Hunter” (Hunter). The contract for the supply of 200 F-4M was signed in 1965. Then, as in the case of carrier-based variant, the order was reduced to 150 machines, and later to 118, this number included two prototype YF-4M.
Unlike deck options at FGR.2 used front chassis normal length main stand was equipped with a mechanism rastor-magimania, instead of flaperons was a regular ailerons and installed engine “Spey” 202 without the extra boost. And another was a set of on-Board equipment. Radar was distinguished by the presence of the mode of terrain mapping and the ability to detect air targets on the background of the earth. As in the case of the deck with the “Phantom” part of the components to build a fighter aircraft produced in the UK, and final Assembly took place in the United States.
The first of two prototypes YF-4M, with registration number ХТ852, flew on 17 February 1967. The tests were completed without too much difficulty, and the fighter launched into serial production. The first production FGR.2 flew to the British Isles on 18 July
1968 years and the last 29 Oct 1969 . Retraining of personnel of the RAF, the new technique took place on the basis of the 228th centre in Coningsby (Coningsby). There in may 1969 from FGR.2 formed and the first combat squadron of No. 6. Prior to the adoption into service of aircraft “Jaguar” (Jaguar) division of the British “phantom” took upon himself the execution of strike missions, using bombs, NUR outboard and cannon containers SUU-23. Later FGR.2 steel interceptors.
Under the Central ventral pylon all FGR.2 can be suspended container with reconnaissance equipment type EMI.
In 1975, all cars were modernized, they have established SPO ARI 18228. In 1979 improved PRNG for the application of SD medium-range “sky flash” (Sky Flach) and new versions of Sidewinder. For extending the life of the airframe in 1987 at 75 FGR.2 replaced the power set and the sheathing panels of the wing.
In the late 1980-ies the British “phantom” began to retire and replaced by the Tornado F. 3 interceptors. Latest FGR.2 were taken from the RAF in 1992.
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was

Recommend to read

    What is the snowmobile (motonarty) motorcycle everyone knows who is familiar with these vehicles. Mainly because the first — track and adapted to ride on the snow cover and the second...
    "you Wrote Pankov Alexey Illarionovich, the leader of the group for karting at the House of pioneers city of Genichesk of the Kherson area. I appeal to you to help me and my kids in the...