MODEL AIRCRAFT ENGINE -IT IS REAL!

MODEL AIRCRAFT ENGINE -IT IS REAL!Modelers – people are scrupulous, and appreciate when a replica model of the aircraft, ship or tank is not only the most similar prototype, but repeats it in great detail. Imagine that you will be able to demonstrate a model of passenger airliner or fighter jet, including the main design elements of its engines! Today we talk about how modern aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE) and why building it requires a higher skill level. This publication will also be useful for followers of simulation, shipbuilding and armored vehicles. Because it is often under the deck of a modern ship or under armor tank is still the same GTD.

First a little history. As you know, until the Second world war, the aircraft was established reciprocating engines and for a long time they were comfortable with the pilots, and designers. However, the need for increased flight speeds “pulled” for an increase in the mass of such engines, making the aircraft too heavy. Then replaced the piston came to gas turbine engines, which enabled the aircraft to a higher speed at a much lower weight of the structure.

 
Calculations for creating gas turbine engines was conducted in the prewar years in the USSR, England, Germany, and Italy. Until 1941 on the creation of aircraft GTE in our country worked mainly V. V. Uvarov and A. M. Lyulka, and the beginning of the war, their design was almost preserved. In England, and especially in Germany, designing GTE continued in full swing, and by mid-1944 Luftwaffe appeared jets. In the same year, the State Committee of defense of the USSR adopted a decree on the development of jet technology. It was decided to create a prototype GTE V. V. Uvarov and A. M. Lyulki. After the acquisition of GTE party of British firms began to use them. Appeared captured German jet aircraft, whose engines – BMW-003 and Jumo-004 – carefully studied and mastered the production.
Today we know many types of aircraft gas turbine engines e.g. turbojet, turbojet with afterburner, turbofan, turboprop, turboshaft, etc. turboencabulator what Unites them is the presence of mandatory elements – a compressor, combustor and turbine.
 
V. V. Uvarov
Vladimir Uvarov
 
A. M. Lyulka
A. M. Lyulka
 
A structural diagram of a turbojet engine with afterburner
 
A structural diagram of a turbojet engine with afterburner “Olympus 593” supersonic Anglo-French aircraft “Concord”
 
The typical kind of stage aircraft compressor
 
Typical view of stage aviation compressor
 
It looks like the combustion chamber of aircraft gas turbine engine
 
It looks like the combustion chamber of aircraft gas turbine engine
 
The typical kind of stage aircraft gas turbine
 
A typical view of the stage of the aviation gas turbine
 
The principle of operation of a gas turbine engine consists in the following. Compressor, a rotatable turbine, continuously compresses and supplies air into the combustion chamber. In the combustion chamber the air is heated by a continuous combustion of fuel. As a result of compression and heating of the obtained high temperature gas having high energy. The useful part of this energy goes to the rotation of the turbine and screw and (or) the formation of a jet of the gas jet through the nozzle.
 
At first glance, the nacelle with the engine looks on the plane so elementary that one might think about the simplicity of the engine itself. In fact it is not. For the first time after reading the “stuffing” of modern aviation gas-turbine engine, many are in a state of shock. Thousands of large and small parts, the rotor speed in thousands of revolutions per minute, the temperature in the combustion chamber almost like the surface of the sun, and tens of thousands of hours of uptime; the cost of each engine amounting to millions of dollars.
For modelling purposes, a very simplified, internal structure of GTE can be represented as a long series of paired circular bars (steps). One of them is fixedly mounted on the cylindrical housing of the motor (the stator) and the other located on a rotating shaft with a disk (rotor). The rotor is reminiscent of many “threaded” on one axis of the fan, which spins between the bars of the stator. Lattice can simulate a lot of thin long plates, which in this engine are referred to as blades and have a complex spatial form. The grating compressor and turbine are on opposite sides of the combustion chamber, is actually a “empty” annular volume. Directly behind the turbine of a nozzle. At the top or bottom of the engine mounted units. In modern passenger aircraft the engines are often located under the wings on pylons (in the nacelle), whereas in military aviation GTE can take a significant part of the fuselage of the aircraft.
 
Turbojet engine RВ.207 - was developed for the Airbus A-300
 
Turbojet engine RВ.207 – was developed for the Airbus A-300:
 
1 – fan; 2 – compressor; 3 – combustion chamber; 4 – turbine

 
Location of the engine in the nacelle and the scheme of operation of the device for deflection of thrust turbojet engine rolls-Royce RB.211. One of the modifications of this engine was developed for the Boeing 747
 
The location of the engine in the nacelle and the scheme of operation of the device for deflection of thrust turbojet engine rolls-Royce RB.211. One of the modifications of this engine was developed for the Boeing 747
 
Even a superficial review of a production model turbine engine for a specific model of aircraft or helicopter looks difficult and time consuming. You must imagine not only the engine type and its structure, but also carefully consider the technology of manufacturing of the stator and rotor, compressor and turbine openwork grates, combustion chambers, nozzles, and other elements of design. You should work out the scheme of fastening of the engine and to provide possibility of review in a model-copy. Even more difficult is the task of simulating the running of GTD, which will see the rotation of the rotor, and even the glow of flames in the combustion chamber. Obviously, such a work only very experienced copyists. However, ovchinka worth the candle. These are the models of aircraft and engines has been repeatedly shown at international exhibitions and air shows, gathering around him crowds of admiring professionals and fans of model airplanes.
A. ZLOBIN

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